MINOR ADJUSTMENTS being made to a miniature 2-
IN the chapter beginning on page 621 we described in detail a fine model railway built to a gauge of ⅝-
One of the finest Gauge O railways in existence is that owned by Mr. G. P. Keen. Three rooms of a large house are used to accommodate the numerous tracks of this line, every detail of which is accurately modelled to correct scale. The whole railway is electrically operated from a direct current supply at 25 volts. There are three frames for working the signals and points; the largest frame has ninety levers.
There are more than two dozen perfect scale model locomotives ranging in type from little four-
AN UNUSUAL MODEL of an International Sleeping Car Company's wagon as attached to the “Golden Arrow” express on the Northern Railway of France. The boxes contain the registered baggage from Victoria to Paris via the Southern Railway, the cross-
THE ORIENT EXPRESS AND THE SIMPLON ORIENT EXPRESS employ a type of all-
MAIL VAN. This scale model represents the vans constructed by the PLM which are used on French trains carrying the English mails for India. Since the contents are often valuable, such vans are of a self-
A similar scheme of construction has been adopted for the rolling-
Another model represents an International Sleeping Car Company wagon as used on the “Golden Arrow” express to carry the boxes containing the registered baggage from Victoria Station, London, to Paris. A model of the Sleeping Car Company’s all-
The scores of wagons on this model railway are representative of every type in the service of the full-
A TANK LOCOMOTIVE which operates on Mr G. P. Keen’s railway. The Gauge O model, fitted with the Knorr feedwater heater, pump and steam reverse, regularly hauls one hundred four-
One remarkable model constructed by Mr. Keen represents the North Eastern Railway set built in 1917 for the carriage of heavy guns up to 150 tons in weight. The prototype of this set comprises three 60-
A Gauge O railway, constructed and operated on rather different lines from the foregoing, is owned by Mr. Erik L. Bown. This railway was built to stand the hard wear and tear of juvenile handling. All the locomotives and rolling-
The up and down lines are wired independently to a two-
The stations and passenger trains are fitted with electric light. Points and signals are operated by rodding worked by levers in the various signal boxes.
The running rails are of rustless steel carried in chairs spiked to the sleepers. The centre live rail is of brass and supplies current to the locomotives through sliding contacts. Track is ballasted with fine slag chippings. The motors of all locomotives are fitted with permanent magnets which, by reversing the poles on the controller, allow of forward or reverse movement of the train. A pick-
All locomotives, rolling-
Another very fine indoor railway, built to the O gauge, is that owned by the Rev. A. H. Webb. This line occupies a very considerable space in its owner’s vicarage and represents many years’ work by the Vicar and Mr. G. Rather, who has designed most of the lay-
THE VICARAGE MODEL RAILWAY, owned by the Rev. A. H. Webb. The line possesses twenty-
There are seven stations, comprising nineteen platforms, complete with signals, bridges, and the usual equipment to be found on modern railway premises. All repairs and track laying are carried out by Mr. Webb and Mr. Rather, and they have made a large number of the coaches and trucks. This railway, in common with most model systems run as a hobby, is constantly being added to, and considerable time is spent in effecting improvements to the various details. The electrically-
The railway is run, as far as possible, in accordance with “big practice”, and there are the usual down and up roads with local and main lines.
A typical outdoor Gauge O railway is that of Mr. Cecil J. Allen, which is so planned that it can be used, when necessary, by large numbers of boys bringing their own locomotives. For this reason it is raised up on trestles at an average height Of 3 ft for convenience in operating. The trestle structure is of considerable strength, so that the owner shall not feel unduly nervous if he sees a number of spectators all leaning up against the track at once. The uprights are wrought iron angles of the kind commonly used in fencing, of 1½-
From the main station, with its three platforms, the double main line is carried for some 70 ft down the side of the garden, after which it bends round at 45 degrees into a second station with an island platform. From there, the two lines now converging to single track, the line curves back through 135 degrees to the far side of the garden, along which it returns for some distance, finally recrossing the garden diagonally back towards the main station. A complete circuit of the garden, from the main station back into the same station again, gives a run of roughly 200 ft. This can be completed without difficulty by a locomotive with a good modern clockwork mechanism, hauling a train of reasonable size, on the scale model permanent way with which the whole of the track -
TWO VIEWS of Mr. Cecil J. Allen’s line, showing the realistic effect of well-
Alongside the main station is a garden shed, and this has now been used for the provision of additional trackage under cover. Inside this there are two stations, one low level, at the same height as the main system, which is level through-
The stock of model clockwork locomotives includes a “Flying Scotsman” type LNER “Pacific”, which in one of the illustrations can be seen running on to the main line after having come across the garden; a “Royal Scot” of the LMS, which is the fastest and most powerful engine on the line, and has succeeded in hauling a train of fifteen bogie coaches without assistance; a Midland compound 4-
On “gala days”, when as many as forty boys at one time have been “on the line”, many of them with their own engines, not all the details of operation, we fear, would commend themselves to the Ministry of Transport. Racing of locomotives along the 70 ft of double main line is always an exciting event, especially when the convergence to single line is reached on the opposite side of the garden; beyond this point the engine first across sometimes suffers the indignity of being caught up and “bumped” -
The advantage of an outdoor line of this description is that, although the maximum of realism is not possible in the matter of track and station equipment, the railway is able to afford pleasure and healthy exercise to a considerable number of users at once, and also a course of no inconsiderable value for testing the speed and haulage capacity of locomotives on a well-
A fine example of a Gauge 1 garden railway is that owned by Mr. V. B. Harrison. Gauge 1 measures 1¾-
There are about 500 ft of track laid on a foundation which is supported on concrete posts. A run of 400 ft is covered by a train before it returns to the starting-
The line is laid with brass rails held with wooden keys in chair fastened to properly-
A GAUGE 1 garden railway owned by Mr. V. B. Harrison. The line has some 500 ft of track laid on a foundation supported by concrete posts. There is a central station housed in an asbestos building, and three outdoor stations, shown in the diagram, are planned. By means of spring points, trains can cover the entire route and return to starting-
The trains can be made to take various routes as required, and will also, by means of spring-
THE CENTRAL STATION (above) and (top) one of the junctions on Mr. V. B. Harrison’s railway. There are both clockwork engines and steam engines on this line. All signals and points are operated from the central station from a miniature signal-
The track is really a long single line, but is so arranged through the stations that the effect of an up-
The locomotive stud consists of eleven clockwork engines which are used by the junior “operatives’’ and twelve steam engines of both tender and tank varieties. Two are of the outside-
Then there are three coal-
All, except two of the high-
A COAL FIRED MODEL of the “City of Truro” on Mr. V. B. Harrison’s Gauge 1 railway. The Great Western Railway’s original engine of this name was famous for its speed, and this wonderful miniature follows the prototype in every detail, including the old GWR livery.
The carriage stock consists of about eighty coaches and wagons of various types and sizes. The signalling arrangements are carried out to conform with correct railway practice, and consist of the old type semaphore, upper quadrant and modern colour-
Ali the signals and points are worked in the central station from a properly constructed signal-
A feature of model railway engineering that will appeal to many is economy in construction. Thousands of pounds are spent annually on model railways throughout the world, but expense does not bar the hobby to those unable to make heavy purchases of models or materials. Many excellent examples of model railway work are built almost entirely from waste material that would normally be thrown away as waste.
Some miniature railways have, in fact, been constructed in this manner to demonstrate the possibilities of real crafts-
There is also a commercial use for railway models. Many of the large companies use them for publicity purposes, or to assist intending passengers in the choice of their seating accommodation.
Such models are usually built by firms who specialize in this work. A fine example of craftsmanship is the model of a luxurious tourist coach on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, built by Messrs. Bassett-
A LUXURY TOURIST COACH MODEL. This measures 4 ft 3-
The use of a private coach, or tourist car, as it is called in India, enables the traveller to be independent of hotels. He brings his own servants and makes his own catering arrangements throughout the journey, and the coach can be detached and left indefinitely at any place he desires to visit. This type of vehicle is becoming popular in India.
The woodwork of the coach is of polished teak and oak, and the car contains a complete suite of rooms for passengers and servants. The compartments in the carriage comprise the kitchen, servants’ quarters, dining and day saloon, three double sleeping compartments, one special suite complete with private bathroom and, at the end of the corridor, the general bathroom.
All these features are faithfully reproduced in the model, and even the smallest accessory is beautifully finished. The kitchen has a scale model stove and sink, and the dining-
The exterior is finished in cream with gold lines, with a grey roof. The glass windows are protected by two shutters -
Models of railway prototypes are used extensively in the film industry. It is an expensive business to run a full-
Models have played an important part in many famous films with a railway interest. For the filming of “Rome Express” a magnificent model of a PLM Pacific locomotive was built by Messrs. Bond’s o’ Euston Road, Ltd, to a scale of 1-
AN IMPORTANT PART in filming the “Rome Express” was played by this fine model of a PLM “Pacific” type locomotive built to the scale of 1-
Railway models of all kinds may be seen at the Science Museum, South Kensington, and other educational centres. Demonstration models of locomotives, trains and railway equipment are in constant use by railway companies for instructional purposes, and are employed by other bodies for publicity.
A particularly interesting model for public demonstration was built by Bassett-
The track was built to the 1¾-
At two positions along the track scale-
Two locomotives (one as a reserve) are used, the LMS “Royal Scot” and “Black Watch”. Every external detail on the locomotives and coaches is faithfully reproduced to scale, and the whole train is operated electrically by means of a third conductor rail on a pressure of 20 volts.
A MODEL MAIL TRAIN built for the General Post Office is used for public demonstration on a 1¾-
This model is used to demonstrate to the public the operation of the Post Office Mail trains, described in the chapter “Travelling Post Offices”, which begins on page 157.
One of the most fascinating branches of miniature railway work is the building and driving of small coal-
Chicago, Illinois, is the home-
A YOUNG DRIVER at the throttle of a ¾-
The building of a passenger-
This kind of railway is simple and cheap to build, but other methods of construction may be used, such as, for example, concrete arches placed end to end so as to form a viaduct. The arches are “cast” in place in wooden box moulds. Sleepers and rails are laid on top of the arches as in real practice. A low brick wall, or sharply cut embankment, also makes a good foundation for a passenger-
The cars for these miniature railways may be made of wood with cast-
The building of the engines is rather too involved a process to describe in detail here. Such construction, however, follows “big” practice, and the chapter “How a Locomotive is Built”, beginning on page 751, gives an idea of the methods employed. In general design a miniature locomotive resembles that of a full-
REAL LOCOMOTIVES IN MINIATURE on typical timber-
The lower illustration gives an excellent “close-
Miniature locomotives for passenger hauling may be purchased commercially, but these are somewhat expensive and many garden railway owners prefer to build their own locomotives. Castings and materials are readily obtainable, and many amateur engineers have built some excellent machines with simple workshop equipment.
The post of driver is combined with that of fireman on miniature lines, but the duties of the “crew’’ on a little locomotive are exactly the same as on a big engine. Steam is controlled by means of the locomotive regulator, reversing and “notching-
Some owners of garden lines, who wish to operate them by electricity, have laid a third rail, supplying current at 12 to 20 volts, obtained through a transformer from the house mains. A small fractional horse-
Had it not been for the development of the miniature steam locomotive, it is safe to assume that there would have been no very small garden railways, carrying live loads, in existence at the present time; and it is only in recent years that such lines have come into existence. Not many years ago, a 2½-
The constructor of this line, who was an engineman familiar with full-
Some of the lines are of considerable length, where sufficient ground is available. About the longest of 3½-
An ingenious arrangement is employed for operating switches or points from the moving train. The switch-
The Duck Island Route at Greenwich, Conn., USA, is another 3½-
A NEW YORK GARDEN LINE with a working model representing a London and North Eastern Railway “Pacific” locomotive on the 3½-
These lines are not used for pleasure or amusement alone. In the same way that valuable data can be obtained by trying out a small replica of an ocean liner or a destroyer, in a testing tank at the National Physical Laboratory, or by placing a small aeroplane in an artificial gale in a wind-
Despite the fact that, in many countries overseas, parts are difficult to obtain and have to be specially imported, there are still many garden railways to be found. The favourite size is the 2½-
It is, however, in the United Kingdom that the small passenger-
Many girls and women take a delight in driving a miniature locomotive, handling the regulator, reverse gear, and brakes with a skill equal to that of men. Numbers of women are conversant with the working of the engine, and not a few have assisted in the building of both locomotive and railway.
It is hardly necessary to add that these garden railways are very popular indeed with children. Most children are fascinated by the full-
MONEY FOR CHARITY has been earned at various exhibitions by this excellent model railway, which was built by a sergeant in the Royal Air Force. This photograph shows one of the realistic stations on the line.
At the same time, with an adult in charge, children can derive not only pleasure and entertainment from operating the railway, but also obtain valuable engineering knowledge, which is never forgotten, and may prove a stepping-
The accompanying illustrations will give the reader a good idea of the working of these small lines. The post-
The great advantage of a coal fire lies in the fact that as soon as the engine stops and ceases to puff, the fire goes “dead” and the generation of steam is reduced until the engine re-
AN AMERICAN “PACIFIC” engine which operates on a private garden railway at Kenton Grange near Harrow. The driving wheels measure 10-
“Model Railways -