Some Recent Developments in Mammoth Engines on the Continent
The engine weighs 83½ tons, the whole of which is available for adhesion.
DURING the past decade the iron ore export industry of Sweden has increased by leaps and bounds. The demand for this raw material and its economical transport to the points of shipment has taxed the facilities of the State railways to a supreme degree. The two foremost mining districts are those of Gellivare and Kiruna, in Lapland, which two fields supply more than one-
The extreme northern situation of these deposits in very uninviting, broken, and difficult country presented some pretty problems. While Gellivare is about midway between the waters of the Baltic and Atlantic, Kiruna is nearer the latter. On
the northern Baltic Sea is the Swedish port of Lulea, which was connected to the main railway system of the country by a road running north-
When the Scandinavian peninsula was under a common government it was decided to carry a new line from Lulea across the peninsula to Narvik, an excellent port upon the Norwegian seaboard, well within the Arctic circle. By so traversing the heart of the iron-
The imperative necessity for carrying the ore from the mines to the shipping points -
trains range from twenty-
The locomotives are of the ten-
TO HAUL THE HEAVY EXPRESSES OVER THE ST. GOTTHARD PASS AND THROUGH THE FAMOUS TUNNEL, DOUBLE-
Probably one of the most arduous sections to work upon the Federal Railways of Switzerland is the St. Gotthard line, which includes the famous tunnel. The grades are exceptionally severe for a trunk steelway, while the curves are sharp. During the past few years the volume of traffic flowing over this steelway has risen by leaps and bounds, and more and more powerful steam locomotives have to be devised to cope with the situation.
The heaviest grades are encountered between Goschenen upon the north and Biasca on the south side of the tunnel. To move the trains in either direction over this section double-
When one bears in mind the generally flat character of the country of Belgium, one scarcely would look to the railway system that kingdom for the most powerful coal-
THE MOST POWERFUL LOCOMOTIVE IN EUROPE
The Flamme Pacific, which handles the fastest express service of the Belgian State Railways, leaving Brussels for Ostend. The train load averages 400 tons, and a speed of 76½ miles per hour is attained.
The diameter of the cylinders is 19·685 inches, while the stroke is 26·98 inches. The total heating surface is 3,246·3 square feet, of which aggregate the superheating surface is 667·36 square feet, while the fire-
Some idea of the enormous strides which have been made in regard to the mechanical equipment of the Belgian railway system during three quarters of a century is demonstrated by comparing the huge Flamme Pacifics with the little pioneer “Le Belge”, which was the first locomotive to run in Belgium in 1835. She was a crack steed of her era, and although she has long since been retired from active service, she still is preserved as an interesting memento of the days when railways were young upon the Continent. “Le Belge” is a six-
1835 AND 1913 UPON THE BELGIAN STATE RAILWAYS
“Le Belge”, the first locomotive to run in that country, which developed 41 horse-
While the perfection of the Mallet articulated principle has adequately met the requisitions of the operating department for bigger and more powerful locomotive effort, it has precipitated its own peculiar problem. This is, the endurance of the fireman. The monsters of this class which are common to the American continent represent the limit to which this factor can be forced; physical capacity is stretched to its utmost in stoking and keeping the machine up to its work. Strenuous efforts towards the removal of this handicap are being made by the evolution of mechanical stokers, but although enormous strides have been made in this direction, perfection and reliability are still somewhat distant.
This problem, however, is possible of solution by the utilisation of liquid fuel, and in the acquisition of huge Mallets for the heaviest freight work upon its system, where stretches of the road are exceptionally arduous, the Southern Pacific Railway stipulated for an oil-
The cylindrical tender, carrying 10,000 gallons of water and 3,200 gallons of oil, is attached to the chimney end of the engine, while a driving cab is provided on the footplate. In running order the locomotive with tender weighs 306 (US) tons.
The Southern Pacific oil-
The functions of the reheater are similar to those of the superheater, with this difference: whereas the superheater raises the temperature of the steam before it passes to the cylinders, the reheater reheats the steam after it has completed its work in the high-
The outside driving wheels are 57 inches, while the centre wheels are 50 inches in diameter respectively. The driving-
[From Part 21 of Railway Wonders of the World by Frederick A. Talbot, 1913]