The Newest and Most Powerful Locomotive for Passenger Service on Heavy Gradients
THE FIRST “MOUNTAIN” BUILT FOR THE NATAL DIVISION OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN GOVERNMENT RAILWAYS. This type, which grew out of the “Mastodon”, was evolved in 1908. The first five locomotives of this design were built by the North British Locomotive Company, and went into service in 1909. They have cylinders 21 by 24 inches, and a steam pressure of 200 lb per square inch. The eight coupled driving wheels are 45½ in diameter.
THE youngest member of the large locomotive family, the talk of the railway world to-
The first five locomotives of this design were built by the North British Locomotive Company. They have cylinders 21 by 24 inches stroke, working at a pressure of 200 lb, and connected to the eight coupled driving wheels 45½ inches in diameter. The total heating surface is 2,718 square feet, the tubes representing 2,582 and the firebox 136 square feet, respectively; the grate area is 34 square feet. The maximum axle load is 33,824 lb. At 75 per cent, of the boiler pressure the tractive effort is 35,280 lb.
This new type went into traffic in 1909, and gave such satisfactory results that a further 25 locomotives were acquired; the whole of these were built in the Glasgow shops of the builders mentioned, in 1911. Shortly afterwards the same builders supplied a further ten engines of similar type, which in all essential features are identical, but fitted with the superheater. The successful working of these locomotives in the difficult country of Natal prompted Mr. H. M. Beatty, C.M.G., then chief locomotive engineer to the Cape Government Railways, to adopt the same type for heavy passenger duty upon his system. These locomotives have cylinders 20½ by 28 inches, and driving wheels 54 inches in diameter. The total heating surface provided amounts to 2,317 square feet -
Two of these locomotives were acquired to work the trains through the coastal section of the Cape Province, which, like Natal, is mountainous, though the grades and curvature are less exacting. At the time they, with those designed by Mr. Hendrie, constituted the heaviest rigid engines in South Africa. Having been built solely for working the trains through the heavy country, they became known as the “Mountain” type -
Some two or three years after Mr. Hendrie had conclusively demonstrated the possibilities of this type of locomotive it invaded the United States, the trail being blazed by the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, which was experiencing difficulty in the economical working of its express trains through the Alleghany Mountains. While this barrier is not so formidable as the Rockies or Cascades, it is wild and ragged, the lofty tree-
THE FIRST AMERICAN “MOUNTAIN” TYPE (4-
The heaviest part of the main line is between Covington, 223 miles from Washington, on the eastern slope of the mount-
Following the Greenbrier River, Ronceverte, 11 miles beyond, is reached at 1,700 feet, and this station is at the foot of the east-
The passenger trains comprise ten all-
The “Mountain”, 4-
The maximum tractive power is 58,000 lb; factor of adhesion, 4·12. The power of this express passenger locomotive may be judged from the fact that, on test, it has hauled its ten-
SIDE VIEW OF THE UNION PACIFIC “MOUNTAIN” GIANT WHICH DEVELOPS 3,500 HORSE-
Ready for the road it scales 592,800 lb, and its maximum tractive effort is 54,838 lb.
Realizing the immense advance which the “Mountain” type represents over its immediate predecessor, the “Pacific”, the Union Pacific Railway, during 1922, purchased 55 members of this family from the American Locomotive Company, to haul its overland expresses through the worst stretches of road between Cheyenne, Wyoming and Ogden, Utah. In passing between these points the train has to negotiate the “Continental Divide”, climbing to an altitude of 7,107 feet at Creston, Wyoming, while at Sherman, in the same state, 171 miles nearer the Missouri River, the rails touch 8,013 feet above the sea.
The length and arduous character of these ascents reacted against fast timing, and consequently induced the acquisition of the new giants, which, at the moment, rank among the most powerful high-
ANOTHER VIEW OF THE HUGE “MOUNTAIN” EXPRESS LOCOMOTIVE (NO. 7000) OF THE UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD. The overall length of this giant is 90 feet 6⅛ inches; the driving wheels are 72 inches in diameter; and its cylindrical tender, mounted on 12 wheels, carries 12,000 gallons of water and 40,000 lb of coal. It attains a speed of 100 miles an hour.
The cylinders are 29 inches in diameter by 28-
A comprehensive idea of the volume of steam produced by the boiler may be gathered from the fact that the total heating surface is approximately equal to one-
The theoretical horse-
“MOUNTAIN” TYPE (4-
The “Mountain” type conceived by the engineers to, and first introduced into, one British Dominion has been carried to its most advanced stage in another corner of the Empire. During the year 1923 the Canadian Locomotive Works delivered from their shops at Kingston, Ontario, sixteen 4-
These units constitute what is officially known as the “6,000” class, from being numbered 6,000 to 6,016 consecutively, and they are notable for incorporating many interesting features. In completing their design the engineers of the Government network were stimulated by two cardinal factors -
These “Mountain” locomotives have an overall length of 90 feet, and, in running order, turn the scale at 649,600 lb, or 290 tons. The cylinders have a diameter of 26 inches and a stroke of 30 inches, work at a steam pressure of 210 lb, and are connected to 73-
The overall width of this giant -
No. “6,000” and her sisters have been built to haul the famous “National” expresses between Montreal and Chicago and those plying over the heavy road between Moncton and the Atlantic seaboard. Their enormous power is demanded because they are frequently called upon to handle a train of fifteen cars representing a dead weight of 1,265 tons. Mammoth locomotives, as a rule, are slow of speed, but those of the “6,000 ” class are designed to give a speed output of approximately 73 miles an hour.