LANCASHIRE & YORKSHIRE RAILWAY EXPRESS PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE, No. 1406
DESIGNED BY Mr JOHN A. F. ASPINALL, M.INST,C.E.
A GUARD in scarlet coat and tall beaver hat who starts the train with a tantara on a long coach-
On the 1st of March 1841 there opened the Manchester & Leeds from Manchester to Normanton, the nucleus of that entanglement of tracks extending from the Humber to Morecambe Bay which now occupies sixty pages of Bradshaw with its time-
VICTORIA STATION, MANCHESTER.
No wonder the people cheered, for they had been talking about this particular railway for sixteen years; never was there a line with better prospects of success. There was no difficulty about the choice of route, there was only one easy way through the boundary hills between the two counties, and it was agreed from the beginning, in 1825, that the line must go through the Calder valley; but it was not easy to raise the money. The Liverpool & Manchester, however, put heart into the scheme, and after six years the Manchester & Leeds Company was formed to introduce Bills that failed, through the opposition of the canal interests, in both 1831 and 1832. Then came what may be best described as three years of shifting and squaring, and then the obtaining of the Act in 1836 for a railway through some of the most populous districts in England. Look at the map and think of the people and goods waiting to be carried in and about that belt of towns.
Its engineer was George Stephenson, and among those who helped him was Alexander Nimmo, F.R.S., who was also engaged on the Manchester, Bolton, & Bury, now also part of the Lancashire & Yorkshire. A great man was Nimmo, an engineer who did much in Ireland and elsewhere and knew more than most men, though now nearly forgotten. He was one of Stephenson’s supporters before the Commons Committee on the Liverpool & Manchester Bill. “Sir”, he was asked, with regard to Chat Moss, “would you undertake to float a railway over a morass?” “Yes, sir”, said Nimmo cheerily, “and I will undertake to float one over the sea, if you will find the money for it!”
The works began on the 18th of August 1837. The ground was hilly and the rocks were hard, and people who knew nothing about engineering, among whom were most of the newspaper men, kept up a continuous chorus as to the impossibility of the endeavour. But Stephenson went steadily on with his easy gradients through magnesian limestone, coal measures and millstone grit, yoredales, and then millstone grit and carboniferous again, “cutting through them like cheese” -
AN OVERHEAD CARRIER: A NOVEL DEVICE FOR TRANSPORTING LUGGAGE AT VICTORIA STATION, MANCHESTER
Beyond the great tunnel, the cutting had to be piled to obtain a firm foundation; then came the short Winterbutlee tunnel, and the viaduct of eighteen arches leading on to the skew-
In the whole fifty miles there were not four miles that were straight. The gauge, remarkable for a Stephenson line, was 4 ft. 9-
Provision was made for three classes of passengers, or rather four, for private carriages were carried on trucks at sixpence a mile, the people riding in them paying twopence a mile in addition. In the company’s first-
There were quarter-
The wagons were merely open trucks with a handrail round them but no seats. The first great improvement was to bore holes in the floor to let the rain out, the next to run a wooden bar from end to end and another across for the passengers to cling to, the next to give them seats; then came the roof, then the sides were made up, with wooden slides for windows. “Wagon passengers” as they were called, not third class, were treated as undesirables and severely discouraged. The porters were not allowed to touch their luggage, and they had to be at the booking office at least ten minutes before the departure of the train or they would not be booked.
THE MANCHESTER AND BLACKPOOL EXPRESS.
As the Manchester & Leeds began with coach guards in all their latest glory, so it began, like other old railways, with coach booking on the latest principle. There was a book with counterfoils in which had to be written twice the passenger’s name, with the date, the destination, and the fare, half the leaf being torn out and given to the passenger, the counterfoil remaining as the record. The passenger’s slip when collected at the destination was stuck on a spike file, and with other such vouchers went to headquarters to be compared with the books. Booking a train was a long job even at a bye-
At Lancaster in 1792 was born Thomas Edmonson, an enterprising child who was taught knitting by his mother to keep him out of mischief. At Lancaster, Gillow the cabinetmaker was then making chairs as the firm had been doing for years, and are still doing, and keeping working drawings of every order so classified that then, as now, you can order, say, a couple of dining-
Occasionally he took a trip eastwards, and one day as he was walking in a certain field in Northumberland he reached a spot in that field, still pointed out, where an idea occurred to him. “Why all this fumbling and spelling of passengers’ names? Why not treat them anonymously and number them? Why not a strip of paper or pasteboard printed with the names of station and class, with the fares? Why not consecutively number them for accounting purposes and date them on the day of issue to prevent fraud? Two machines could do it!” And then he thought out the machines, and went to talk it over with his friend Blaylock the watchmaker.
THE LOCKWOOD VIADUCT, NEAR HUDDESFIELD
They made the machines, that was not difficult; but to persuade a company to adopt the new system was another matter. The Newcastle & Carlisle would have nothing to do with it, and Edmonson tried elsewhere. He tried the Manchester & Leeds, and fortunately the manager was just in the mood to jump at it. The delay at the booking-
That progressive engineer Captain William Scarth Moorsom (whose name it is as well to give in full to distinguish him from his brother, Captain Constantine Richard Moorsom of the North Western) was also applied to by Edmonson, and introduced the new tickets on the Birmingham & Gloucester shortly after they had got to work on the Manchester & Leeds; and, the advantages being evident, the plan became generally adopted and spread with the railways all over the world. Edmonson’s income grew with every mile, and the surplus he invested until he had accumulated enough to pay off his old bankruptcy creditors in full; and then he started on another series of investments, all in railways, and became wealthy, as he certainly deserved to do. His younger brother George, of some note as an educationist, was also a railway-
There are over a thousand millions, that is more than five hundred acres, of tickets issued in this country during the year. They are packed in bundles of 250, and are numbered consecutively up to 9999, and then a new series begins if it does not begin before, but frequently they are not wanted in such numbers, and even only five of a sort have been printed. They are all of the same size to suit the printing machines, which print only one ticket at a time, but their colours and patterns are nearly as numerous as those of dress fabrics. The colours of the ordinary tickets of all the chief lines are given in the Railway Year Book, but these are only a fraction of the variety used. Some are used in millions, some not in tens. From one station the writer booked to a certain seaside resort soon after the branch was opened, and his ticket was 001; next year he went, and his ticket, very faded at the edge, was 002; next year the ticket, not quite so dirty, was 004. Four tickets in three years; that is the smallest number to his personal knowledge.
The tickets are placed in the tubes with the highest number on the top, there being at the bottom of the tube an opening just large enough for the lowest ticket to be drawn out. In fact it was the ticket tube that gave the hint for the automatic sweetmeat delivery stand which the ticket-
LANCASHIRE & YORKSHIRE RAILWAY THIRD-
The numbers of all the bottom tickets are taken before any are issued, and, as each ticket is sold the next is drawn just far enough forward to show the number. When the train has gone (or at any time that may be necessary) the numbers are taken down, and the old numbers being deducted from them give the amount and details of the sales, and consequently the cash for which the issuer is liable. This is all done in the train books, the totals of which go into the summary book to give the day’s total takings that are sent in the double-
Every month the starting and closing numbers of the tickets in every tube are entered in a book, a copy of which goes to the audit office; and after collection at the destination every ticket is arranged in numerical order and sent to the audit office, whence all through tickets go to the Clearing House, to be dealt with according to their nips and punch-
Among other novelties introduced by the Manchester & Leeds under Captain Laws was the first combined railway and steamboat long distance excursion; and, considering it was the first, it took a deal of arranging. This took place during the Whitsun holidays of 1843; the train was worked through Normanton on to the North Midland, thence on to the York & North Midland, thence on to the Hull & Selby to Hull, where the steamer took the excursionists to Leith for Edinburgh -
LANCASHIRE & YORKSHIRE RAILWAY COAT OF ARMS
The Manchester & Leeds soon changed its name. In 1847 the company assumed its title of the Lancashire & Yorkshire on the first of that series of amalgamations which, with loops and spurs, have spread it across the two counties from Goole to Fleetwood, named, by the way, by Sir Henry Fleetwood after himself, he having planned the whole place on the site of a rabbit warren in 1836, formed the harbour and brought the railway to it, making it “a seat of commerce situated advantageously for intercommunication between the great marts of England and the seaports of the Isle of Man and the north of Ireland”.
Of its extensions the best worth remembrance is that from Wigan to Southport through Burscough Bridge, which it built on compulsion. Before its opening the train took passengers to Euxton, and thence they had to make their way by coach. The Act for the continuation of the railway had been obtained for years, but, fearing it would not pay, the company did nothing, and it was not until a Southport man secured a mandamus compelling them to complete the line that they set to work on what proved to be the most profitable section of their system. The other Southport line, that from Liverpool by the coast, also proved unexpectedly profitable, and at length the traffic on it became so great that the only way to deal with it was by electrification.
One advantage was evident from the first. As Mr. John A. F. Aspinall pointed out, “Every time a locomotive train comes in and goes out you have four platform operations and eight signal operations. First of all the train comes in, then a locomotive follows it, that is two; then the train goes out, that is three; then the locomotive which brought it in goes out, that is four platform operations, which means eight signal operations. The electric motor train comes in, that is one; the motorman goes to the other end of the train, and the train goes out, that is two. You have only two platform operations, and four signal operations. The result is that, by using motorcar trains instead of locomotives, you double the capacity of your terminal accommodation”. Then there were other advantages, the quicker getting into speed and the higher journey speed, the more frequent service, the greater possible mileage of each train per day, and the increased loading and unloading capacity of the platforms. Against this were the expense of the installation and upkeep, and the unforeseen drawbacks. In short, it was a plunge, and it has proved to be a plunge that paid.
EXPRESS PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE NO. 1508
The Southport branch has fifteen-
Before the change the Liverpool & Southport line required 30 engines and 152 coaches with 5084 seats; it now has 38 motor-
There is one drawback to electrical traction. According to the present law locomotives are not rated, but power-
The third rail, or conductor rail, stands 3-
The Lancashire & Yorkshire has over 1500 locomotives, that is more than the Great Northern, Great Central, South Western, Great Eastern, Brighton, or South Eastern & Chatham. Of these 1100 are in steam every day, and over a thousand of them have been built at Horwich. The works there are among the best in the country, and cover 116 acres, of which over twenty-
This was Mr. Aspinall’s 8-
THE LOCOMOTIVE ERECTING SHOP AT HORWICH
Mr. Aspinall’s policy was to have as few classes as possible and to favour standardisation and interchangeability. The result is that there are only fifteen classes of engines, excluding pug engines and rail motors, now on the line. The second group was his 6-
The next class of importance is that which was introduced in October 1891, of which there are 20 hauling loads of 1000 tons on the level. These 6-
In 1900 the first of 108 8-
In 1904 Mr. George Hughes succeeded Mr. Hoy, and he built the thousandth engine at Horwich, a compound with four cylinders, the two high-
In March 1908 came the first of his 10-
Horwich is approached by a branch between Bolton and Chorley. It is well in the centre of the western division, of which Hellifield is the farthest north and Liverpool the farthest south. The eastern division covers a much narrower strip of country stretching across to the Humber. On the North Eastern, by means of running powers, the L. & Y., as it is nearly always called, reaches York from Normanton, and Hull from Goole; on the Great Northern, from Askern, it reaches Doncaster; on the North Western, from Bradley Wood and Heaton Lodge, it reaches its detached territory between Huddersfield and Penistone; and on the Great Central, from Penistone, it reaches Sheffield. Manchester is its centre, and Liverpool, Fleetwood, and Goole its chief ports, though the line to Fleetwood and Blackpool, and the other stations north of Preston, it owns jointly with the North Western.
Goole was a village, where the Dutch river enters the Ouse, until 1820, when the Act was obtained authorising the canal from Knottingley ending in two docks, one of which was opened in 1825 and the other in 1826. Two years after the opening of the second dock it had thriven sufficiently to be made a Customs port, and for seventeen years it slowly grew. Then, in 1845, came the Wakefield, Pontefract, & Goole Railway and Aire & Calder Navigation Act to construct further docks, and thenceforth it increased in prosperity at a quicker pace; and now it has eight docks and sidings for four thousand wagons, and eighty goods trains go out of it a day. When the Lancashire & Yorkshire absorbed the railway it did its best to foster the trade of the canal port, and by this policy it was led on to have ships of its own. In 1905 it bought the fleet of the Goole Steam Shipping Company, and to this in the following year it added the Goole boats of the Wholesale Co-
Meat, fish, milk, special goods trains of all kinds are now run on our railways, but every one may not have heard of butter trains. Every Sunday there comes into Goole a cargo of butter, which is unloaded and sent off in two trains at two in the morning to reach Manchester at five, and be delivered to the traders at seven. The wagons are but a few among the 32,500 owned by the company, which uses them during the year in hauling about some 7 million tons of merchandise and over 18 million tons of minerals along its 585 miles of track; and every year it carries 60 million passengers in its 4800 coaches, its passenger mileage being about 13 millions. What this means can be best appreciated by comparing it with the South Eastern & Chatham, which has a longer line by 44 miles and a passenger mileage of 12 millions. In short, the Lancashire & Yorkshire takes more money for each mile of track, and runs its engines more miles on each mile than any other of the great companies, and its coaches and wagons -
THE LANCASHIRE & YORKSHIRE RAILWAY STEAMER MELLIFONT