Progress During the Past Fifty Years
THE “COBHAM”, one of the ten single-
THE steady improvement in locomotive design that had been proceeding since the inception of railways to the year 1880 continued to the end of the nineteenth century. Many types of engine incorporated features of design such as are now in general use, and weights showed a marked tendency to increase as more and more was demanded of the locomotive to meet the growing needs of the railways. During the period 1880-
Express engines of the 2-
The North Eastern Railway built in 1885 some 2-
Another type of engine in general use at that time was the 4-
Locomotives of the 0-
Other engines designed by Adams included the 4-
Large numbers of 2-
SUPERHEATED LMS TANK LOCOMOTIVE, formerly owned by the Caledonian Railway. Cylinders measure 19 in by 26 in, diameter of coupled wheels is 5 ft 9 in, boiler pressure 170 lb per sq in, total heating surface, including superheater, 1,716 sq ft, and total weight in working order 91 tons 13 cwt. Tractive effort at 85 per cent boiler pressure is 20,704 lb.
Large tank engines of this type were also designed by Sir John Aspinall in 1889, and were built for the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway for about twenty years. The cylinders of these engines were 18 in diameter by 26 in stroke, and the coupled wheels were 5 ft 7 in diameter.
It was in the ‘eighties that considerable attention began to be paid to the compounding of locomotives. A full description of the various methods employed to make the most use of the steam available from the boiler and so secure fuel economy, is given in the chapter on “The Evolution of Compounds”, which begins on page 1046. On French railways also compounding
pressure cylinders driving one axle, and two outside low-
Improvements continued to be made in engine details. A vortex blast pipe was introduced by Wm. Adams in 1885 to increase the draught through the lower tubes of the boiler, and for the same purpose “petticoat” tubes at the base of the chimney were adopted in Great Britain in 1888. Steel castings for frame stays and brackets were used to replace those of
wrought iron by F. W. Webb in 1880.
Other improvements of the ‘eighties included the use of ‘I’ section coupling rods, the substitution of metallic packing for the hemp formerly used for piston and valve rods, air-
Train speeds in 1884 reached a maximum of about seventy-
BUILT FOR THE CALEDONIAN RAILWAY, this 4-
An interesting comparison may be drawn between Mr. Ivatt’s singles of 1900 and his famous “Atlantic” locomotives of 1910, which after twenty-
A “MOGUL” BUILT IN 1912 for freight service by the Caledonian Railway. This 2-
ON THE EAST KENT RAILWAY. This
AN “ATLANTIC” EXPRESS ENGINE, formerly of the North Eastern Railway, hauling an LNER train near Barkston, Lincolnshire. Designed in 1911, these three-
Sir John Aspinall’s 4-
26 in cylinders and 7 ft 7 in driving wheels, the largest coupled wheels ever used in Great Britain. The North Eastern “R” class of 4-
In 1896 J. F. Mclntosh introduced the famous “Dunalastair” class of 4-
In 1897 an important step forward in British locomotive design was marked by the introduction of engines with four cylinders, all taking high-
The London and North Western four-
Locomotive Type”, which begins on page 1173.
Firebox Water Tubes
The London and South Western’s 4-
In 1898 the first 4-
the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway in 1899-
The first ten British 4-
had been built by Sharp, Stewart and Co for the Highland Railway. These locomotives weighed 56 tons and had outside cylinders 20 in by 26 in, driving 5 ft 3 in coupled wheels.
Many powerful goods engines with the 0-
begins on page 1046. In 1900 some inside-
A SECTIONAL VIEW of W. Adams’ London and South Western express locomotive. The engine was claimed in its time (1890-
AN EXPRESS LOCOMOTIVE OF 1892, designed by W. Adams for the London and South Western Railway. This 4-
During the last ten years of the nineteenth century many important modifications were made in locomotive design that were destined to remain standard practice for over forty years. The principal development was the adoption, in 1891, of the Belpaire, square-
In 1897 the Belpaire firebox was adopted by W. Dean on the Great Western Railway and by Sir John Aspinall on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway It is now used extensively on most railways.
About the same time (1897) that the water-
Valves and valve-
The Schmidt Superheater
From 1900 onwards locomotives with three and four high-
to a Great Western 4-
In 1906 G. J. Churchward on the GWR re-
An enlarged “Atlantic” No. 251, appeared on the Great Northern Railway in 1902. This engine had cylinders 18¾ in by 24 in; coupled wheels, 6 ft 7½ in diameter; a total heating surface of 2,500 sq ft; and a grate area of 30.9 sq ft. No. 251 was the
first of a numerous and successful class, now superheated.
A number of “Atlantics” were built for the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway in 1911. These had 21 in by 26 in cylinders and driving wheels 6 ft 7½ in diameter. They had the same type of wide firebox as used on the Great Northern “Atlantics”, and weighed 68½ tons.
The first of the North Eastern three-
cylinders 20 in by 28 in and 6 ft 6 in driving wheels. In 1912 J. G. Robinson designed the “Sir Sam Fay” class of 4-
In 1917 J. G. Robinson introduced some powerful 4-
A large number of powerful tank engines were built just before and during the war of 1914-
ln the Twentieth Century
A number of 2-
Between 1911 and 1918 J. G. Robinson designed a class of heavy 2-
At the time these engines were designed it could not have been foreseen that they would play an important part in the war of 1914-
seas. After the war, these engines were sold in large numbers to various British railways.
In 1917 R. E. Maunsell built some powerful 2-
Some large six-
A large number of 4-