Developments During the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century
A NORTH LONDON RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVE. This is a model of one of five 2-
THE year 1850 saw the general adoption, on British railways, of the 2-
This type of locomotive was put to universal work for an exceptionally long period. The first 2-
In 1850 the first attempt was made to work a locomotive on the compound system. In a compound engine the steam, after expanding in the working cylinder, is made to enter a second cylinder or pair of cylinders, there to continue to expand and give up more of its energy in the form of useful work before being exhausted into the atmosphere through the blast nozzle. The valves of two locomotives of the old Eastern Counties Railway were altered in 1850 so that the first cylinder cut off steam at about half stroke, expansion then taking place in both cylinders. Both cylinders were worked, however,
In 1852 the compensating lever, an invention that is still used at the present time, was incorporated in the design of a 2-
Although the majority of express passenger engines from 1850 were of the 2-
Another exception to the 2-
A METROPOLITAN TANK on the London and North Western Railway. Numerous engines of this class were built by Beyer Peacock & Co. between 1864 and 1871. The cylinders were 17 in by 24 in and the coupled wheels had a diameter of 5 ft 9 in. The tank capacity was 1,000 gallons.
A NORTH EASTERN LOCOMOTIVE of the 492 class built in 1865 by Robert Stephenson & Co of Newcastle.
Another design of passenger locomotive in general use from 1852 was the coupled 2-
In 1855 the first of the Great Western narrow gauge 2-
Joseph Beattie also built some 2-
The work of Patrick Stirling will always be remembered in connexion with his famous Great Northern 8-
6 ft 6 in driving wheels. Stirling was at this time Superintendent of the Glasgow and South Western Railway, and his
6 ft 6 in singles remained the standard type of express passenger locomotive on that line until 1865.
The dimensions of the old broad gauge -
Some noteworthy narrow gauge engines of the 2-
In 1859 Joseph Beattie built some 2-
Reference has been made, on another page, to the provisions of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway Act of 1826. One clause of that Act required that the engines used on the line should consume their own smoke. Earlier engines, on the Stockton and Darlington line, burnt coal, as this was cheap and readily obtainable from the collieries served by the railway.
To comply with the provisions of the Act it was decided to burn coke instead of coal, and for many years after 1829 coke was universally used on main line railways. The engines of the period were consequently provided with small grates and fireboxes and short boiler tubes suitable only for the combustion of coke.
Early experiments in burning coal smokelessly were made between 1837 and 1858. These attempts comprised the provision of means for increasing the air supply above the fuel, or the addition of a combustion chamber between the firebox and the boiler tubes. A third method provided for an increased length of path for the gases inside the firebox, by means of bridges deflecting the products of combustion downwards on to the fire before they entered the tubes.
In 1841 an extra air admission system was introduced by S. Hall, and shortly afterwards an entirely new idea, the brick arch (now in universal use), was added, to deflect the furnace flames to the centre of the firebox and so obtain better combustion.
A boiler designed by J. E. McConnell in 1852-
J. I. Cudworth, of the South Eastern Railway, provided coal-
Between 1856 and 1860 experiments were carried out on the Midland Railway by C. Markham and Matthew Kirtley, which led to the adoption of a larger and simpler firebox fitted with a brick arch and a deflector plate in the firedoor.
During the ten years following 1860 many improvements were carried out in British locomotive practice. Existing engines were enlarged, and, although few new locomotives were built with single pairs of driving wheels, these continued to be used for many years on the majority of express trains. Among these engines were the Caledonian 8-
A series of 2-
Between 1866 and 1873 ninety-
“PHLEGON”, a 2-
Coupled engines of the 0-
An interesting development in locomotive practice was the introduction of the bogie, which not only provided additional carrying wheels, but which also made the engine far more flexible on curves. Most of the first bogie locomotives were designed by Stephenson & Co, and six were built for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1860. The first two of the series had 16 in by 24 in outside cylinders and 6 ft coupled driving wheels. Large American-
A great improvement in bogie design was introduced by Stephenson & Co in 1861. Lateral sliding movement was given to the bogie, controlled by means of side springs.
Passenger tank engines were built in large numbers in the period 1860-
An interesting type of tank engine was introduced by D. Gooch for use on the old Metropolitan Railway between Bishop’s Road (Paddington) and Victoria Street (now Farringdon and High Holborn). This line, opened on January 10, 1863, was laid as a broad gauge railway, and now forms part of London's Underground. Gooch’s tank engines had 16 in by 24 in cylinders with 6 ft coupled wheels, and twenty-
Another type of tank locomotive also made its appearance in 1863. This was a 2-
A number of 4-
In 1868 Mr. Adams introduced the first of a type of tank engine that remained the standard for passenger work on the North London Railway until that line became merged into the LMS system. These fine locomotives had the 4-
The design of goods engines received considerable attention in the early sixties, and some 0-
Two very powerful goods tank engines were built for the Vale of Neath Railway in 1864. These locomotives were eight-
Another interesting innovation of this period was the introduction, by A. Sturrock in 1863, of a steam tender fitted with an extra pair of cylinders to increase the tractive power of the locomotive.
The next important development in locomotive building during this period was the use of steel in place of wrought iron for tyres. The first successful steel locomotive tyres were produced by Krupp at Essen, Germany, in 1851, and in 1859 Naylor & Vickers of Sheffield supplied steel tyres to the London and North Western Railway. The difference between iron and steel tyres in wearing qualities was remarkable. An iron tyre lasted for 50,000 to 60,000 miles, but a crucible cast-
Steel also came into use at this time for crank axles, piston rods, valve spindles, guide bars, and crank pins. Steel boilers were first made in 1862, and steel fireboxes were used on the Scottish Central Railway between 1860 and 1863.
"EMPEROR", a Great Western broad gauge locomotive built in 1880. Its cylinders measured 18 in by 24 in. The single driving wheels had a diameter of 8ft, the other six wheels had a diameter of 4 ft 6 in. The working pressure was 140 lb and the engine weighed in working order 41 tons 14 cwt.
For the next decade -
Locomotives of the 2-
A series of 0-
outside cylinders built for the Stockton and. Darlington Railway in 1875 were remarkable for their 17 in by 30 in cylinders and 7 ft driving wheels.
A London and South Western engine built in 1877. Its driving wheels had a 6 ft 7 in diameter and the cylinders were 17 in by 26 in.
Passenger tank engines came into general use at this time, with differing wheel arrangements. Among the most famous of the six-
AN EARLY GREAT NORTHERN TANK designed by Patrick Stirling. This locomotive was built in 1879 at Doncaster for working over the lines of the Metropolitan Railway. The driving wheels were of 5 ft 7 in diameter and the cylinders measured 17½ in by 24 in.
The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway introduced 2-
ON THE LANCASHIRE AND YORKSHIRE RAILWAY. This locomotive was built in 1867 at Miles Platting, near Manchester. The six-
In 1880 the first of many 2-
The standard goods engines of all lines at this time had the 0-
In 1873 F. W. Webb introduced on the London and North Western Railway his well-
A powerful class of 0-
Webb's standard goods engines of 1880 were the first main line engines in Britain to be fitted with Joy’s valve gear, and no fewer than 310 of this class, with 5 ft 1½ in wheels, were built between that year and 1902.
BUILT IN 1869. A London and South Western Railway locomotive designed by Beattie. The cylinders measured 16½ in by 22 in and the driving wheels had a diameter of 5 ft.
[Read the next article in part 27]