Luxury and Comfort in To-
OVER 3,700 COACHES are owned by the Canadian National Railways. Modern Canadian rolling stock is of all-
THERE are three-
Up to a point, these factors are antagonistic to one another. Increased comfort generally entails greater spaciousness; greater spaciousness means less seating accommodation in each compartment, and, therefore, more coach weight for each passenger conveyed. The tendency, therefore, for in this contest it is generally the passenger who wins, is for the weight of trains steadily to increase. And as the tendency is for train speeds to rise in the same progressive fashion, so the problem of train haulage incessantly becomes more onerous.
Every new amenity of travel that has been introduced has been at the expense of the locomotives. Corridors, first of all, have taken from coach width the equivalent of two seats in each compartment. Lavatories and end vestibules have deducted compartment space from coach-
Then the increasing popularity of the restaurant car means that, on many important express trains, two or even three coaches are given over entirely to the service of meals, and are not used at all for ordinary seating purposes. The “Royal Scot” of the LMS, for example, with separate restaurant car equipment in both its Glasgow and its Edinburgh sections, carries in summer two kitchen cars, two third-
ON THE GREAT WESTERN and other British railways, four-
The same applies to the working of night trains, only to an intensified degree. A modern first-
Not only so, but with the addition of various details to coach construction, such as steel panelling, reinforced ends, and more strongly built frames, the weights of the vehicles themselves have been steadily rising for years past. In 1905 the tare weight of a corridor coach 54 to 60 ft long was 25 to 27 tons or so; to-
In the design of coaching stock for suburban working, however, the provision of maximum seating space in a minimum of length and tare weight is absolutely essential. Most of the suburban lines round London, for example, are crowded with trains to their utmost capacity. Further, as has been emphasized in more than one chapter of this work, the movement of traffic into and out of the City is largely confined to certain relatively brief periods of the morning and evening, known as the “rush hours”. Increasing the length of trains tends to slow down suburban working. The business of the designer of suburban stock is, therefore, while providing such comfort as is reasonably possible, to contain the seated passengers within the narrowest practicable limits.
It was the late Great Eastern Railway, serving the densely populated “dormitories” of North-
At the peak periods the intensive Walthamstow, Chingford, and Enfield traffic, which is conducted, between Liverpool Street terminus and Bethnal Green Junction, entirely over one pair of tracks known as the “Suburban” lines, rises to a frequency of twenty-
Of all rolling-
Certain French railways, with their more ample loading gauge, have solved the Paris suburban problem by building double-
ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY PASSENGERS can be carried in this double-
In Great Britain, save in the matter of horse-
The chief contribution to smoothness in modern railway travel has undoubtedly been made by the substitution of bogie suspension for the older rigid wheel arrangements. In the same way as that of the locomotive, the carriage bogie is a truck, supported on tour or six wheels, and in its turn carrying the end of the coach by means of a pivot. The bogies are therefore tree to swing, and thus to take smoothly and easily the curves in the track, the four or six wheels of the bogie truck take up the oscillations arising from slight inequalities in the track, and tend to damp them out before they reach the coach body. Bogie design has now become a fine art, and both steel springs and interposed rubber are brought into use so that the riding of the coach may be the smoothest possible.
For the support of dining and sleeping cars 65 ft 6-
The advantages of carrying a coach on eight wheels instead of on twelve are obvious. There are two pairs of wheels and axles less to be provided for each vehicle; there are four axle-
Reference must now be made to the principle of coach articulation. It originated on the former Great Northern Railway, which had some corridor six-
The experiment was so successful that the principle has since been greatly extended. Many of the older non-
Then there are the main-
IN AUSTRIA. Spaciousness and modern railway comfort are typified by this second-
The advantage of articulation is twofold. There is a slight reduction in both length and weight in an articulated unit, as compared with ordinary independent coaches of the same capacity. Against this there must be set the disadvantage, a small one, it may be, but not negligible, that the articulated set is an indivisible unit, and it is not possible to take a coach out of it should less accommodation be required, or in the event of such a casualty as a “hot box”, which would entail the removal of the whole set from the train in which it was running.
Another contribution to smooth running is found in what is known as the “buck-
In effect, the train which is entirely coupled in this manner becomes a jointed steel frame from end to end. Oscillation of coach-
It is curious that European travel, generally in compartments, should differ so completely as it does from the almost invariable American plan of the open coach. But in recent years the LMS Railway has greatly extended the use of open cars in express trains in Great Britain. First built to provide supplementary restaurant car accommodation, these cars are often now incorporated in ordinary express trains. The modern excursion train is formed almost exclusively of open stock on the LMS, LNE, and Southern Railways. All the latest LNER open third-
With the open coach there has come in the fashion of the end exits, not only in vehicles of this description, but in side corridor compartment coaches also. The costs of coach construction are reduced when end doors only have to be provided, as compared with doors to every compartment. The sole disadvantage is that ingress and egress are somewhat slowed down when the train stops, but with the comparatively lengthy stops of main-
A British Compromise
The vexed question of all-
Coach lighting in all new British stock is exclusively electric. This has replaced the previous gas lighting, though numerous gas-
COMFORTABLE TRAVEL is the keynote of the American railway service. The above photograph shows the luxurious interior of a streamlined coach built at Milwaukee for the Chicago, Milwaukee, St Paul and Pacific Railroad in 1934. This company, operating some 11,000 miles, owns about 1,200 passenger coaches, including two completely streamlined trains for high-
On the LNER electric cooking is also standard in all new restaurant-
The LMS, also, is experimenting with electric cooking, but with a special Diesel-
This leads to a brief consideration of carriage warming in winter. For the most part this is provided by through steam-
In countries where extremes of heat and cold are encountered the problem of cooling the cars in summer is as great as that of heating them in winter. This has led in the United States to the rapid spread of what is known as “air-
Luxury accommodation is provided in Great Britain by the independent Pullman Car Company, which owns a large number of cars, both first-
The Great Western Railway has built its own cars of a somewhat similar type for transatlantic boat expresses between Paddington and Plymouth. Among other luxury coaches are the open first-
On the mainland of Europe luxury travel is provided largely by the well-
IN THE COCKTAIL BAR, which forms an attractive feature in one of the coaches of the famous “Flying Scotsman” express. This train, equipped with every device for modern luxury travel, has also a hairdressing salon.
Generally speaking, Continental rolling stock is considerably heavier than British. Ordinary corridor coaches turn the scale at anything from 35 to 45 tons, and restaurant and sleeping cars generally at about 54 tons. Pullman cars weigh from 48 to 54 tons, the variation depending on the presence or absence of a kitchen. The complicated mass of connexions provided on vehicles intended for the international services is explained by the fact that provision must be made for different systems of braking in all countries through which the coaches will pass, together with steam-
As to the accommodation, second class on the Continent generally corresponds to third class in Great Britain, and Continental third class, often bare boards, provides a third alternative at a considerably lower rate per mile. Many Continental trains carry second-
To the Englishman, accustomed as he is to the simplicity of two classes of travel, save for the supplements charged for sleeping or Pullman cars on the relatively few trains carrying such vehicles, the accommodation offered him on the American continent may well seem almost bewildering in its variety. He takes his American “folder”, the equivalent of a British time-
Or, against some express of particular note, he may observe the legend “No Coaches”, suggesting to his mind, no doubt, some species of “ghost train”. Here it should be explained that the “coach” rate represents the basic charge for American railway travel, somewhat corresponding to third-
In America “coach” accommodation is exclusively in open cars, sometimes called “Day Coaches”, and seating two passengers on either side of a central aisle, the more ample loading gauge of American railways making the extra width possible. A typical vehicle of this type, some 70 feet long, and carried, as generally happens, on six-
American “Standard Sleepers”
Restaurant cars in considerable variety are included in the day trains. Where custom warrants it, a full-
Observation cars are a feature of American travel. Attached to the rear end of important trains, the original open platform outside has now for the most part been abandoned in favour of a curved “tail”, consisting chiefly of glass, and with the chairs so arranged in the end of the car as to command a good view of the track and the scenery disappearing behind the train. There is one example of this type of car in Great Britain in the “Maid of Morven”, a one-
Then comes the lengthy and varied range of American sleeping car equipment, of which the commonest form is the “Standard Sleeper”. On long journeys across America and Canada, it is necessary to provide the passenger with comfortable seating accommodation by day, and with reasonably comfortable sleeping quarters by night. The same vehicle is therefore made to serve either purpose, similarly to the couchette in France, and to the earlier third-
THE “FLYING SCOTSMAN” includes superb restaurant cars in its make-
In both the two types of car last-
Each “bay”, or pair of seats in the car, is known as a “section”, and there are therefore two rows of “sections”, one on either side of the aisle. Each “section” seats four persons in the day-
It is also possible for a single passenger to engage a complete “section” to himself, termed a “bed section”, without the upper berth being made up, at an appropriately higher charge. The attendant who has charge of the car is known as the “porter”; he does all the work of preparing the car at night and restoring it for day use the next morning. He makes all the beds up with sheets and blankets, and does everything necessary for comfort.
It may be argued that sleeping accommodation of this description, while superior to that of the British third-
Then there are combinations of the various types of sleeping accommodation, some cars containing within the length of one vehicle a number of standard “sections”, a “drawing room”, some separate sleeping compartments, a smoking-
A DRAWING ROOM ON WHEELS is the effect of this handsomely furnished observation lounge on the rear of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad’s new streamlined express, the “Abraham Lincoln”, operating between Chicago and St. Louis. The express covers the 284 miles run in 5½ hours. The company, controlling some 5,550 miles, owns about 1,680 passenger coaches.
On the long transcontinental journeys, particularly in Canada, somewhat simpler sleeping accommodation is provided in what are known as “Tourist Sleepers”, the supplement for which is about one-
On a still lower scale are the “Colonist Cars” provided for settlers; there are nine bays in each of these cars, seating seventy-
The latest development of the observation car is the “Solarium Lounge Car”, with deep “Vita Glass” windows, a large open observation room furnished with armchairs, library, smoking-
The composition of an American passenger train is completed with various descriptions of baggage cars, in which also a good deal of space is reserved for the United States mail and staff. On long-
A Canadian Express
A typical train formation for a transcontinental express is that of the “Dominion Express” of the Canadian Pacific Railway, from Montreal to Vancouver. This is advertised to include “coaches” throughout from both Montreal and Toronto to Vancouver; “colonist cars” from Toronto to Winnipeg and from Winnipeg to Vancouver; a “tourist sleeper” of fourteen “sections” -
Yet another detail of equipment is an entirely open observation car, attached on part of the journey. Further sleeping cars are added to the formation of the train as required.
For staffing the train, apart from engineer (or driver) and fireman, there is a conductor, or head guard, with trainmen to assist him; a sleeping car conductor in charge of all the sleepers, and one “porter” to each car; a “parlor car attendant” for each car of this description, and the dining car staff. A train of this description is thus in every way a hotel on wheels, and is occupied by through passengers, making the entire journey from Toronto or Montreal to Vancouver, for no fewer than three and a half days.
AUTOMATIC COUPLING GEAR, known as the “buck-