How the Railways Serve their Regular Passengers
AT PADDINGTON. The London terminus of the Great Western Railway has twelve terminal platforms to deal with long-
THE problem of the railway rush hours -
Hence, railways all over the world have been obliged to go to enormous expense and to lay down additional running tracks, enlarge stations, lengthen existing platforms, and build new ones merely to provide for the traffic requirements of four or five hours out of the twenty-
A special feature of suburban rush-
On the other hand, it should be emphasized that the better facilities and quicker and more frequent services offered by the railways have led to the opening up of these outer suburban residential areas.
All transport problems are ultimately reduced to a question of money. In dealing with rush-
RUSH HOUR IN BUCHAREST. The rush-
The effect of modern signalling on accelerating traffic movements is not always appreciated. Signals were originally introduced for the purpose of controlling trains and increasing the margin of safety; yet, given certain operating conditions, it is possible to work a railway safely without the use of signals. But it would be impossible to handle the traffic on the London Tubes, or in and out of Waterloo Station, for example, without them. Since the Metropolitan District Railway was electrified, the maximum number of trains that can be handled on a single running track has risen from approximately sixteen to forty an hour.
Electrification, with its greater acceleration and deceleration, has, of course, been an important factor in bringing about increased services, but the existing services could not have been provided without the use of automatic signals. Among other advantages, they enable much shorter block sections to be used than is customary on main lines. In fact, the twentieth century signal has made possible the efficient traffic handling of today.
Reversible working, which has been used in New York and on the Brighton section suburban lines of the Southern Railway, normally demands the provision of at least three running roads, that in the centre being used for “up” traffic in the morning, and for “down” trains at night. It involves, of course, a special signalling installation capable of controlling traffic in either direction, but the cost of the additional signals is small in comparison with the alternative of laying down additional running tracks and enlarging stations. Reversible working represents, however, a specialized method of operation, and is not employed to any very considerable extent at the present time.
Both London and New York furnish examples of non-
“Staggering” is a variant of the non-
On short lines having stations close together the fastest and densest service is not always given during the rush-
The London Underground railways have to cope with a rush hour difficulty from which the main lines are for the most part free -
9.30 AM AT LIVERPOOL STREET STATION sees crowds leaving this important LNER terminus for their offices. The station, opened in 1874, was formerly owned by the Great Eastern Railway. Doubts were at first entertained as to whether there would be sufficient traffic to justify its construction. To-
Besides these facts the extension of Tube platforms is costly. On weekdays the line is operated for about twenty hours out of the twenty-
The Central London affords a striking indication of the true nature and meaning of the problem of the rush hours. But that problem is everywhere substantially the same. There is hardly a railway in the world handling a very large urban or suburban passenger traffic that could not carry all its passengers with ease if the movement were uniformly spaced out during the working day.
The rush hours have tended during recent years to encroach on more of the working day, as far as short-
This last is an example of the many social changes that create fresh phases of the rush-
THE INTERIOR OF THE SIGNAL CABIN at Arnos Grove on the Piccadilly Line, London. The track on the diagram is divided into lengths showing the various track circuits. When the track is unoccupied the electric lamps illuminate that section. The Underground, aided by automatic signalling, to-
Facts of this nature arc generally overlooked when railways are criticized for their inability to provide every passenger with a seat during the busiest hours. To do so is possible only at the cost of enormously expensive undertakings such as building a second two-
Appliances such as escalators, pass meters, and automatic ticket machines help to relieve congestion at stations, and to that extent they play their part in solving the rush-
One of these is the so-
These two appliances are in use on the District Railway. A special device is also used on the Tubes for quick starting, which is of special value where the station is on a curve, so that the conductor in the leading vehicle cannot obtain an unobstructed view of the platform, when there would be some delay in giving the “right away” signal. To overcome this difficulty, the newest type of car is fitted with a small box containing a projecting plunger rod. This can be operated by a platform porter or other station official immediately all the passengers have entrained, when the operation of the plunger gives the signal to start.
RESERVED SEATS are a wise precaution for the long-
The automatically operated doors with which the Tube coaches are equipped also make for quick loading and unloading. Indeed, the existing time-
On the steam lines, the rush-
The main lines have certain operating advantages over such purely short-
With minor short interruptions, also, the LNER main line is quadruple from King’s Cross over the first one hundred and five miles to Grantham.
Among the alternative approaches are the two into Marylebone, one of which also gives the Great Western a second set of running tracks for its London and Birmingham traffic; and the Cuffley-
One of the difficulties on the Metropolitan Extension line -
OVER LONDON BRIDGE. Business people streaming over the bridge in the morning towards the City after they have left London Bridge Station, which is situated on the south bank of the River Thames. Approximately 2,400 trains are dealt with every day by the Southern Railway at London Bridge Station, which has fifteen terminal platform lines.